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The Theme - the New Energy Workshop

(The Smart Grid, the US Department of Energy)

"Powering Our Future - The Coming Energy Revolution"





1. Overview

-- The Future of Renewable Energy

Energy is a basic human need that makes the world work. Without it, everything would stand still. A safe, affordable, reliable, clean and sustainable energy supply is essential for human development and economic growth. Today, we face enormous challenges: global warming, depletion of natural resources, population growth, increased energy demand, rising energy prices, and unequal distribution of energy, all of which have led to an urgent need to transition to a fossil-fuel-dominated energy sector using renewable energy Renewable energy and energy-saving technologies. 

Renewable energy is an inexhaustible energy source for human beings, including hydroelectric power, solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy, biomass energy, etc. Renewable energy is highly environmentally friendly compared to single-use fossil fuels. It reduces the damage caused by CO2 emissions and has no emissions issues. 

-- National Electric Power Infrastructure

The national power infrastructure, also known as the "grid", has played an important role in national energy security after more than a century of development. Electricity production has traditionally relied on a steady supply of fuel (mostly fossil fuels), which will keep power plants running permanently. The eventual shift away from traditional fuel-burning plants to cleaner alternative energy sources will require a redesign of the grid so that it can properly respond to sharp changes in demand, adequately compensate for the intermittent operation of renewable energy systems, and interact with distributed generation systems. 

(The Basic Structure of the Electric System - Iowa State University)

-- Traditional Electric Power Grid

An electrical grid is a network of generators, transmission lines, transformers, and distribution/relay systems used to provide the electricity needed by its consumers (residential, industrial, and commercial). Currently, electrical energy is generated at centralized power plants, transmitted through long-distance transmission networks to distribution networks, and then communicated to end consumers, with electricity flowing in only one direction, from the power plant to the customer, collectively referred to as the grid. 

Traditional grids connect large central power stations to distribution systems that directly meet customer needs through high-voltage (HV) transmission systems. Power stations consist mainly of steam stations using fossil fuels and hydro turbines using high inertia turbines to generate electricity. Transmission systems have evolved from local and regional grids to a large interconnected network governed by coordinated operations and planning procedures. 

An electrical grid is an interconnected system that maintains an instantaneous balance between supply and demand (generation and load) while transferring electricity from generation sources to customers. Since it is difficult to store large amounts of electricity, the amount of electricity generated and fed into the system must be carefully matched to the load to keep the system running. 

-- IIoT and The Future of Hydropower 

Humans have been harnessing the power of falling water for more than a century. Today, about 16% of the world's energy needs are met by hydropower, and 71% of renewable energy is provided by hydropower. Hydroelectric power has gone through many industrial revolutions. Today, the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and Industry 4.0 offer solutions that take the industry to a whole new level. 

IIoT technology enables utilities in the hydropower industry to leverage data and optimize multiple aspects of power plants. Rules-based analytics, advanced pattern recognition, machine learning and augmented reality can all help optimize performance and help operators achieve higher reliability.

-- Path to a Clean Energy Economy

We live in a world full of cyberspace, biomedical engineering and other incredible technologies. When it comes to energy, however, little has changed from our decades-old coal- and oil-based energy system. Developments around the world have proven them wrong. However, we may soon witness the most dramatic change in the world's energy economy in a century. 

Governments around the world are encouraging the development of renewable energy. Many of these governments are taking steps to reduce the use of fossil fuels for transport and heating, and therefore may increase the proportion of energy consumed in the form of electricity. Over the next 20 years, the world will need to dramatically increase its energy supply, especially clean power generation. "Demand for electricity is growing twice as fast as overall energy use. 


2. Advantages and Disadvantages: Renewables vs. Nuclear

-- Tackling Greenhouse Gases 

According to NASA, the Earth's surface temperature has risen by 0.9 degrees Celsius since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Researchers agree that there is one main reason for the increase in temperature: increased greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide Greenhouse gases such as methane and methane have grown exponentially in the atmosphere since the late 1800s due to the increased use of fossil fuels in the energy, manufacturing and transportation industries. 

A report released on October 8, 2018 by the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) warned that if the Earth's temperature rose by more than 1.5 degrees Celsius, the impact would be catastrophic. Entire ecosystems could disappear, sea levels would be higher, and extreme weather events would become more common. According to the IPCC, avoiding this "requires rapid, far-reaching and unprecedented changes in all aspects of society", including a 45% reduction in carbon dioxide levels by 2030. 

-- Swift Action Is Required To Save Humanity from Dangerous Global Warming 

Electricity is essential to modern life. It powers the lights and appliances in our homes. It powers many industry processes. It is used to power trains and charge electric vehicles. All power supplies have advantages and disadvantages. There are two different approaches to reducing fossil fuel consumption -- using renewable energy or using nuclear energy. However, renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power are environmentally friendly but have low power generation efficiency. 

Nuclear energy provides large amounts of reliable electricity without generating significant carbon emissions. Nuclear power is very efficient (reliable "baseload" electricity supply), but there are fears of radiation contamination. All these factors have led to different R&D efforts to form microgrids and large-scale penetration of renewable energy using distributed generation systems. In many countries, renewable energy is beginning to replace fossil fuels as the main energy source. But one of renewable energy's biggest questions remains unsolved: What happens if it's cloudy? More specifically, the problem is that renewable energy can never provide a steady source of electricity. 

Nuclear power plants use the heat from nuclear fission to generate steam that drives turbines, much like a fossil fuel factory. However, no greenhouse gases are produced during this fission process, and only small amounts are produced throughout the fuel cycle. 

-- Radioactive Waste Management 

Like all industries, power generation generates waste. Regardless of the fuel used, waste from power generation must be managed in a way that protects human health and minimizes environmental impact. Nuclear power is the only large-scale energy source—the technology that produces the full responsibility for all waste and incorporates its full cost into the product. Compared to other thermal power generation technologies, nuclear energy produces a very small amount of waste. Spent nuclear fuel can be disposed of as a resource or simply as waste. 

Compared to other toxic industrial wastes, nuclear waste is neither particularly hazardous nor difficult to manage. The safe method of final disposal of high-level radioactive waste has been technically proven; the international consensus is that geological disposal is the best option.


3. Building the Energy Internet

-- Energy Internet: Enablers and Building Blocks 

The world's electric power is facing its worst crisis since its inception a century ago. Aging infrastructure, increased peak demand for electricity and heightened concerns about the industry's environmental impact have made it critical to improve how the grid manages electricity. An open, standards-based smart grid, the grid of the future (Energy Internet), is one of humanity's boldest visions. It transforms the current electricity network of thousands of transmission substations, large distribution substations, and public and private owners into a shared, interoperable network that communicates intelligently and works efficiently, similar in concept to today's Internet way of working. 

Smart grids differ from our traditional grids in that they allow for two-way power transfer and communication, whereas traditional grids are limited to one direction. This bidirectional transmission and communication allows for additional grid functionality, control, reliability and efficiency. The Internet of Energy is now possible thanks to advances in microgrid technology and machine-type communications that allow applications with ultra-reliable, low-latency, and massive-scale connectivity. 

A smart grid will consist of millions of components and parts - controls, computers, power lines, and new technologies and equipment. It will take some time before all technologies are perfected, equipment is installed and systems are tested. And it's not going to happen all at once - the smart grid is gradually evolving over the next decade or so. Once mature, the smart grid could bring about the same transformations that the internet has already brought to the way we live, work, play and learn. 

-- Clean Energy Future: The Energy Cloud 

The energy cloud is similar to the idea of cloud computing. Like IT networks, these networks improve consumer efficiency in solar, wind and energy systems. Four key trends driving this movement are: increased regulations to reduce carbon emissions, the transition from central to decentralized grids, more customer choice – from type to usage to consumption, and greater data availability. At the heart of the energy cloud is the implementation of advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) or smart meters. 

-- Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and the Smart Grid

Due to a lack of situational awareness, automated analysis, poor visibility and mechanical switches, today's grids are aging and unsuitable for the increasing power demands of the twenty-first century. In addition, global climate change and the planet’s greenhouse gas emissions from the power industry, population growth, one-way communications, equipment failures, energy storage issues, generation capacity constraints, fossil fuel reductions and resilience are putting more pressure on existing grids. Hence, smart grids emerge as the times require to address these challenges. To realize the smart grid, the advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) based on smart meters is the most important key. 

AMI is an integrated system of smart meters, communication networks and data management systems that enables two-way communication between utilities and customers. The system provides many important functions that were previously unavailable or had to be performed manually, such as the ability to automatically and remotely measure power usage, connect and disconnect services, detect tampering, identify and isolate outages, and monitor voltage. Combined with customer technologies such as home displays and programmable communication thermostats, AMI also enables utilities to offer new time-based rate plans and incentives to encourage customers to reduce peak demand and manage energy consumption and costs. 


(The New York Power Authority’s Integrated Smart Operations Center (iSOC))

4. Digitalization: a New Era in Energy?

-- The Coming Digital Revolution in Energy: People, Technology and Data

The first industrial revolution saw machines powered by water and steam transform manufacturing. The second uses electricity to power mass production. The third brings automated manufacturing of electronics. Now, we are entering a fourth revolution, which some experts predict will be more transformative than ever before: the digital revolution of industry. This is where the physical and digital worlds join forces. 

The digital energy system of the future may identify who needs energy and provide it at the right time and at the lowest cost. But, as the IEA's 2017 Digitization and Energy report shows, getting everything right is not easy. 

-- Digitalization of Energy Systems

In the coming decades, digital technologies will make energy systems around the world more connected, smart, efficient, reliable and sustainable. Amazing advances in data, analytics and connectivity are enabling a range of new digital applications such as smart appliances, shared mobility and 3D printing. Digitalization is already improving the safety, productivity, accessibility and sustainability of energy systems. But digitization also brings new security and privacy risks. It is also changing markets, businesses and jobs. New business models are emerging, and some century-old models may be on the way out. 

Policymakers, business executives and other stakeholders are increasingly faced with new and complex decisions, often with incomplete or incomplete information. Adding to this challenge is the extremely dynamic nature of energy systems, which are often built on large, long-lived physical infrastructure and assets.


5. Smart Grid Technologies

-- How Technology Is Revolutionizing The Energy System

A smart grid can be defined as a power system that uses information, two-way, cyber-secure communication technologies and computational intelligence in an integrated manner, covering the entire energy system spectrum from generation to consumption endpoints. The advent of new technologies such as distributed sensors, two-way secure communications, advanced data management software, and intelligent and autonomous controllers opens up new opportunities to transform energy systems. The main goal is to develop measurement science oriented to communication networks, with specific goals to enhance modelling capabilities and identify potential impacts on critical infrastructure. These systems are beginning to be used on electricity networks, from power plants and wind farms all the way to consumers of electricity in homes and businesses. 

-- The Future of the Smart Grid Infrastructure

The main technologies used in smart grid infrastructure are advanced metering infrastructure, cybersecurity, distribution automation, software and hardware, transmission upgrades and communication technologies. Among them, the transmission upgrade technology is the leading part. The development of smart grids for upgrading transmission systems is primarily driven by automation of substation infrastructure, advancements in distribution transformers, and improvements in the power conversion chain. Smart grid technology will enable energy savings, improved operational efficiency, and a more resilient energy mix at a reasonable cost, while maintaining the reliability of the electricity supply at the levels we are accustomed to. 

The introduction of the smart grid has greatly changed the transmission and distribution system in the grid. Smart grids have always played an important role in increasing the operational efficiency of utility providers, reducing transmission and distribution losses, and improving the interoperability of the various components involved in grid management. The emergence of distributed energy sources and the increasing deployment of renewable energy generation has propelled the smart grid market. As an emerging technology driving the next generation of power grids, the smart grid concept is gaining increasing support from governments around the world as a way of addressing energy independence, climate change and responding to emergencies.


6. Communication Networks for Smart Grid Applications  

-- New Challenges for Energy Communication Networks

Safe, reliable and economical power goes hand in hand with a fast, efficient and reliable communication infrastructure. Currently, smart grids face reliability and security challenges in both wired and wireless communication environments.  

The most important challenge is the lack of communication network infrastructure, which is a key factor in supporting grid monitoring systems. In the absence of any infrastructure network, wireless is often seen as the most cost-effective alternative to wired communications. Recently, great efforts have been made to popularize wireless-based "Internet of Things" (IoT) or simply "Machine-to-Machine" (M2M) communication for a wide range of sensing devices. In particular, grid monitoring is one of the key elements of critical infrastructure resilience. An important aspect of grid monitoring is outage management, which prevents cascading failures in the grid network. 

-- The Communication Infrastructure for Smart Grid

Smart grids will use digital sensors, advanced communication networks and sophisticated analytics to help utilities understand demand in near real-time, manage supply and demand more efficiently, and put greater control over energy use into the hands of consumers. 

Reliable management of power supply systems is increasingly challenging. This development is closely related to the rapid growth of communication demands. This is not only a matter of higher bandwidth, but also the communication requirements of new energy applications, including meter data management, distribution automation and demand response, to name a few. At the same time, energy network components such as ring grid units, distributed energy sources, virtual power plants, microgrids, public charging, energy storage, and private households need to be integrated into the smart grid communication infrastructure of power companies. 

-- National Transmission and Distribution Networks

Smart grids will use newly constructed long-distance, extra-high voltage (EHV, 230~800 KV) or extra-high voltage (UHV, over 800 KV) transmission lines (national "power highways") to deliver most of the clean electricity from distant land and sea Huge wind farms, as well as huge solar fields in deserts and sunny areas for years to come. So why build an UHV transmission system? The main benefit of EHV or UHV transmission is the ability to transmit power over long distances with minimal power loss. UHV allows power plants to be closer to fuel sources and farther from population centers, significantly improving local air quality. The second benefit is the ability to integrate widely dispersed renewable energy sources (hydro, wind and solar) into the national distribution network. 

-- Customer-specific Communications

Consumers and companies are installing solar panels and small wind turbines on rooftops, or small power plants in basements. Efficient small power plants (cogeneration) provide heat and electricity and feed excess electricity back to the smart grid, providing profit to users. Standard-based smart meters with two-way connectivity will be installed in every home. They will be able to measure real-time electricity distribution inside homes and in the grid. Smart meters use broadband wireless networks (eg, Wi-Fi, LTE) to exchange information (measurement data, command signals, and status updates) back and forth between utilities and customers. They are paving the way for tools and services that make systems more responsive to changes in energy demand. The backbone of the system is a communications infrastructure that ensures safe, reliable and low-latency transmission of data across the grid. Of course, the concept that ties all of this together is the Internet of Things (IoT). 

-- Evolution of Communications Technology 

Communication technology has continued to evolve rapidly over the past few years, and Ethernet has become an established standard in the power sector. International communication standards such as IEC 61850 will further simplify data exchange between different communication partners. 

Most of the heterogeneous communication networks of electric utilities have gaps in coverage and bandwidth and need to migrate to smart grid communication infrastructure. This will provide IP/Ethernet connectivity between most components. Therefore, the gradual migration of most traditional communication interfaces and products to TCP/IP based networks and the extension of network access to the consumer level is therefore an important task for decision makers of power utilities. Meeting these challenges requires team-oriented and cross-departmental planning of the migration concept. 

Today, Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) solutions combined with Pseudo-Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) access multiplexers are primarily used by utilities to meet communication requirements in high-voltage networks. To comply with telecommunications industry megatrends and network vendor roadmaps, existing legacy communications networks need to migrate to highly available, packet-based, low-latency hybrid systems. It is recommended to gradually migrate the installed SDH/PDH communication infrastructure to a packet-based high-availability (carrier and utility grade) and standardized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) transport network that integrates in addition to Ethernet traditional interface. This means that MPLS systems integrate voice, data and protection signals into one system. This allows the legacy system to run during the transition. 

PowerLink IP (Power Line Carrier for Digital Substations. No need for separate communication cables) uses high voltage lines between substations as a communication channel for voice and data protection signals. PowerLink IP is designed for the Ethernet/IP environment for new digital high voltage (HV) substations. Today, PowerLink IP is used in modern digital high-voltage substations to provide communication links between substations where fiber-optic connections do not exist, and to provide backup communication systems for installed fiber-optic links.  


7. Distributed Power Generation and Battery Storage 

[A 25-MVA/10-MWh Battery Energy Storage Sytems, Beacon Solar Plant Site, LADWP]

-- Migration Toward a Distributed Grid

The interest in ensuring reliable power and controlling energy costs has led to the rise of distributed generation. Distributed energy systems are part of the world's ongoing energy transition, as well as digitization and decarbonization. They allow their owners and operators to import electricity from a microgrid or rooftop solar system into the grid, as well as consume electricity. There are a variety of technologies that can be used to generate electricity at or near where it will be used, including solar panels, wind turbines, geothermal, cogeneration systems, and emergency backup generators fueled by natural gas, gasoline, or diesel. 

In the coming decades, it is likely that the power source will be completely decentralized (distributed generation). Distributed generation systems generate electricity at the point of consumption. Creating energy on-site reduces costs and inefficiencies associated with transmission and distribution. Distributed energy systems enable users to increase efficiency in a number of ways - by controlling their own generation, feeding electricity into the grid, and curtailing their demand at times of peak demand when electricity becomes more expensive. 

-- Microgrid - Decentralized Energy

A microgrid is a discrete energy system consisting of distributed energy sources (including demand management, storage, and generation) and loads that can operate in parallel or independently of the main grid. The primary purpose is to ensure local, reliable and affordable energy security in urban and rural communities, while also providing solutions for commercial, industrial and federal government consumers. 

A microgrid is a much smaller grid than a traditional centralized grid. It is localized and operates independently of the larger grid. Microgrids generate, distribute and control the flow of energy to consumers. Microgrid software can control all of these power generation resources, it can predict how much sun you will have tomorrow, it can predict how much you will use based on previous patterns. It has evolved from saying "if this happens, then the system will react in some way" to evaluating system conditions that can have an infinite number of inputs. We don't have to preprogram any of these. It can be done in real time. These systems are taking advantage of fast digital systems that are highly connected. Additionally, developers and owners of microgrids can sell the excess electricity they generate to utility companies. 

Microgrids are local grids that can be disconnected from the traditional grid to operate autonomously. Because they are able to operate when the main grid is down, microgrids can enhance grid resiliency, help mitigate grid disturbances, and serve as grid resources to speed up system response and recovery. The development and implementation of microgrids can further improve grid reliability and resiliency, help communities better prepare for future weather events, and move the nation toward a clean energy future. 

-- Alternative Energy Storage Technologies

As the reliability and cost of alternative energy storage technologies such as solar and batteries increase, more and more utilities are leveraging them to improve operational efficiency. They use green power storage to: reduce output variability, better balance loads, improve reliability, prevent outages and minimize ongoing maintenance costs. However, fluctuating solar and wind power requires a lot of energy storage, and lithium-ion batteries seem like the obvious choice -- but they're still too expensive and don't last long enough, limiting their usefulness in the grid. If we plan to rely on more renewables for bulk storage as they come online -- rather than moving to a broader mix of low-carbon resources such as nuclear and natural gas with carbon capture technology -- we may be on a dangerous and unaffordable path. 

Today's battery storage technology works best with limited power, as an alternative to "peak" power plants. These are smaller facilities, often fueled by natural gas these days, that can run infrequently, starting quickly when prices and demand are high. In the next few years, lithium-ion batteries could economically compete with these natural gas peaks. The natural gas peak business is nearing its end, and lithium-ion batteries are a good alternative. 

-- The Co-location of Solar and Wind Farms Paired with Energy Storage

The co-location of solar and wind provides more continuous energy generation than having either technology working alone. Co-locating wind and solar plants can save money on grid connections, site development, and approvals. Wind energy offers the cheapest option for new energy construction currently available in the US, while solar energy can be more expensive to develop and install. 

Combining solar and wind can help cut battery costs as well, since the wind can (and often does) blow when the sun doesn't shine. If you 're in a location where the wind does blow, and especially where the wind complements solar, until the batteries get cheaper than the wind power itself, you're going to be better off adding wind [than batteries]. 

Perhaps one day, grid storage batteries will be so cheap that their cost will be no concern. Until that day, combining wind and solar resources may often create the most amount of electricity for the least amount of money.


8. Integrated Smart Microgrids

-- Microgrids in The 21st Century Power System

Microgrids are seen as a fundamental component of emerging power system architectures. They are rapidly evolving from being essentially backup power systems to an integral part of today's power systems in case individual consumers lose power. This is driven by the falling cost of solar and energy storage and its growth as distributed generation and advances in control automation technologies that open the way for local aggregation and management in decentralized systems. 

A smart grid will be an integrated network of smart microgrids: geographically compact units (small, localized power systems that can be independent of or connected to the grid) capable of operating autonomously from the main grid. Each microgrid will be capable of load-side management, peak shaving, power saving, and grid-connected local renewable energy generation (market-based power system generation scheduling process). 

-- Microgrids - The Self-healing Solution

A microgrid is a local power grid that can operate on its own or connect to existing grid infrastructure. Advances in microgrid technology have allowed more facilities to generate their own power, which is either islanded or connected to the larger grid. The ability to operate outside of the traditional grid infrastructure means that if there is a disruption in power, consumers who rely on the microgrid aren’t affected. 

This is particularly important for places like hospitals, emergency services, and water facilities. Industrial complexes, military bases, college campuses, and other facilities are taking advantage of the value of generating their own electricity, along with the resilience it offers. 

-- The Microgrid Architecture 

The complexity and configuration of a microgrid will vary from one setup to another, depending on the energy demands of the connected loads, but the constituent components are similar. These include dispatchable and non-dispatchable generation, storage, and critical and controllable loads. 

At the core is the microgrid controller, which combines hardware and software to manage the microgrid and its interaction with the utility grid in grid-connected or island mode. 

The technology and associated energy management systems have control over power exchange, generation, load, storage and demand response load management and are a high priority technology. 

-- Virtual Power Plants

Virtual power plants work remotely, consolidating large amounts of independent energy sources from different locations into one network, providing reliable electricity, and trading or selling electricity in the electricity market 24 hours a day. 

The concept of virtual power plants upends the more traditional idea of relying on centralized power plants for predictable electricity. Generally, the United States relies on controlled electricity from large centralized plants, usually coal or natural gas plants. Power flows in one direction; from utility to business or consumer. 

But in recent years, independent power producers large and small have joined in, producing solar, wind and other renewable resources from across the United States. Suddenly, the flow of electricity became bidirectional. This clean energy disrupts energy grids and creates a need for new models. 

-- Microgrid vs. Virtual Power Plant

Virtual power plants rely on software and smart grids to work remotely and autonomously, combining various independent resources into a network. Virtual power plants use complex distributed energy planning, scheduling and bidding. They can stitch together disparate energy sources from different locations and aggregate them to provide reliable power 24 hours a day. Virtual power plants can only be created if there is a market for electricity and services. It is highly dependent on regulations. 

Microgrids, on the other hand, can be created anywhere and are less dependent on market structures. It can be isolated from the main grid, whereas a virtual power plant cannot. However, once the microgrid starts selling its services (such as demand response), it becomes a virtual power plant. 

-- The Evolution of the Smart Grid: The Decentralized Grid

A (futuristic design concept) network of thousands (or millions) of decentralized mini power plants (micro-grids and virtual power plants) -- comprised of diesel generation systems, solar PV generations units, wind turbine systems, fuel cell based power generation systems etc. -- will be able to quickly pool resources to produce mass quantities of energy to compensate for fluctuations in other supplies, like wind power if the wind dies down. The multiple dispersed generation sources and ability to isolate the micro grid from a larger network would provide highly reliable electric power. Microgrid will operate as a backup option during storms, cyber attacks and other catastrophic disruptions. 

All the power generation units are interfaced using different power electronic converters at different stages to efficiently distribute the total generated power in the overall grid. If there is some localized fault in one of the parts of the micro-grid, that part of distribution or transmission line can be isolated and still the power supply to the rest of the micro-grid can be maintained. The sources of a virtual power plant are often a cluster of distributed generation systems, and are often orchestrated by a central authority. 


(The Wind Energy - the US Department of Energy)

9. The Battery Revolution - A Technology Disruption

-- Technical and Economic Feasibility of Applying Battery Energy Storage

Recent advances in energy storage technology could finally make renewable energy sources such as wind and solar a truly viable and economical alternative to fossil fuels for power generation. The ability to store electricity fills the reliability gap that comes with renewables, and on any given day, the sun isn't bright enough, or the wind isn't blowing hard enough to power a starving grid. 

Batteries, true energy storage - the next disruptive technology in electricity, are fundamentally necessary. It provides an inexpensive way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and the wind is blowing so that it can be fed back to the grid and redistributed when demand is high. Energy storage can be deployed both on the grid and in individual consumers' homes or businesses. A complex technology whose economics are influenced by customer type, location, grid demand, regulations, customer load shape, rate structure and the nature of the application. Low-cost energy storage could change the electricity landscape. The impact is far-reaching. At today's lower prices, energy storage is starting to play a broader role in the energy market, moving from niche uses such as grid balancing to broader uses such as replacing traditional generators to improve reliability, provide power quality services and support Renewable energy integration. 

-- Battery Energy Storage for Smart Grid Level Applications

A smart grid without energy storage is like a computer without hard drives: severely limited. Energy stored across the grid can provide power to meet peak power demand, reduce the use of expensive plants, and reduce network volatility by supplying utilities as a last resort when demand spikes. Just as computer and internet infrastructure is built around storage as a key component, the grid will ultimately rely on big data and grid-connected energy storage technologies (wide-area energy storage and management systems) as a key piece. 

--  Battery Energy Storage for Electric Vehicles (EVs) Applications

The battery hasn't changed since 1748, but its technology, materials, and applications have. While initially widely used to power the telegraph network, today's battery applications in cars, consumer electronics, medical devices and stationary storage don't just power our daily lives - they change the way we travel, interact and manufacture. 

In the future, energy storage devices such as lithium-ion batteries will be deployed in electric vehicles (EVs). It will enable EVs to download energy from the plug when sufficient is available. Electric vehicles will also be able to feed electricity back into the smart grid if they are not running and there is a shortage of energy. 

-- Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESSs) Are on the Rise

Providing reliable power is a complex and expensive process. Any imbalance between supply and demand can compromise the stability of the power system. For utilities to handle extra loads or deal with outages, they build more facilities, but that increases their costs and raises rates for customers. The use of energy storage systems (ESS) can solve this problem, increasing operational efficiency and improving power quality through frequency regulation. 

Power companies can produce electricity when it is cheapest and most efficient, while providing an uninterrupted source of power for mission-critical infrastructure and services. A battery energy storage system (BESS) is a subset of an energy storage system (ESS). ESS is an umbrella term for the ability of a system to store energy using thermal, electromechanical or electrochemical solutions. BESS uses electrochemical solutions. 

There are several types of storage systems, such as mechanical storage systems, electrochemical and thermal energy. However, most of them are not very efficient and they are expensive to build. In short, they cannot meet the demands of today's complex power systems. The grid – with increased demand and the widespread adoption of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar – requires new types of electrical energy storage to help create a continuous, reliable flow of electricity and reduce the cost of generating electricity. This can be achieved with long-term systems such as large utility-scale battery storage technologies. 

-- Types of BESS 

Currently, most utilities favor battery energy storage systems (BESS) because these systems are easily scalable and can be located almost anywhere. BESS is a system that stores energy for later use by using battery technology. Energy storage will be key to deploying high-penetration renewable energy globally. 

BESS uses electrochemical solutions. The following five battery technologies can provide unique and important functions for grid operators. In addition, each technology has the potential to further significantly improve the technology and the economy in the short to medium term. 

Lithium Ions: Their size provides good energy storage and can be charged/discharged multiple times during their lifetime. They are used in a variety of consumer electronics such as smartphones, tablets, laptops, electronic cigarettes and digital cameras. They are also used in electric cars and some planes. 

Lead Acid: These are traditional rechargeable batteries that are cheap compared to newer ones. Uses include protection and control systems, backup power, and grid energy storage. 

Sodium Sulfur and Bromine Zinc: Uses include storing energy from renewable sources such as solar or wind. 

Flow: Flow batteries are very large and are often used to store energy from renewable sources. 

All types of BESS have advantages and disadvantages in terms of capacity, discharge duration, energy density, safety, environmental risks and overall cost. However, the lithium-ion battery used by BESS is by far the most widely used system. This is mainly due to their high energy density and steadily decreasing cost. 

-- A Key Emerging Risk 

While the use of batteries is nothing new, what is new is the size, complexity, energy density of the system and the lithium-ion battery chemistries involved -- which can lead to significant fire risks. The meteoric rise of BESSs utilizing lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery technology brings great potential, but also a series of significant risks. Organizations using this technology must balance opportunities with potential downsides.


10. Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and Customer Systems

-- Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and Customer System Technologies

Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is an integrated system of smart meters, communication networks and data management systems that enables two-way communication between utilities and customers. The system provides many important functions that were previously unavailable or had to be performed manually, such as the ability to automatically and remotely measure power usage, connect and disconnect services, detect tampering, identify and isolate outages, and monitor voltage. 

Combined with customer technologies such as home displays and programmable communication thermostats, AMI also enables utilities to offer new time-based rate plans and incentives to encourage customers to reduce peak demand and manage energy consumption and costs. 

-- Moving Beyond the Smart Meter to the Smart Grid and a Smart Future

Smart meters are one of the most important devices in a smart grid. A smart meter is an advanced energy meter that obtains information from the end user's load device and measures the consumer's energy consumption, then provides additional information to the utility company and/or system operator. Smart meters enable two-way communication between the meter and the central system. Smart meters will pave the way for real-time pricing, where energy is priced at different rates depending on the time of day and how much electricity is needed. Utilities can use real-time pricing to better manage grid loads, and homeowners can use it to reduce monthly energy bills. 

For example, smart appliances are saving energy in our homes: washers, dryers and refrigerators can communicate with each other to wash, dry or cool when electricity is cheapest. The dream of a smart grid, where every household appliance is networked (i.e. a home area network) and able to communicate with the grid, consumers can use their phones to do things like adjust their thermostats, depending on a pervasive internet connection. Decentralized energy production units and household appliances will be organized by a central energy management system (smart green building) for each home.  

-- The Control Networking Infrastructure for AMI

The technologies utilities are using to make the smart grid dream of the future a reality today are based on a control networking infrastructure that is made up of smart meters, data concentrators and system software all working together to meet the needs of the smart metering and advanced meter infrastructure (AMI) markets. 

These technologies allow utilities to treat automated meter reading (AMR) and AMI as core, meter-centric, applications for the grid and not as the smart grid itself. This means that utilities are able to think of the grid as a collection of intelligent distributed control applications and devices, riding on a single infrastructure that delivers maximum reliability, survivability and responsiveness. 


(The 1st Nuclear Chain Reaction, the UChicago, Alvin Wei-Cheng Wong)

11. The New Electricity Age

-- A Secure and Sustainable Energy System

Electricity is becoming increasingly important for developing a safe and sustainable energy system. According to Bloomberg's New Energy Outlook 2018, global electricity demand will reach about 38,700 TWh by 2050, up from 25,000 TWh in 2017, driving new investment in power generation capacity. In emerging countries such as Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia, increasing demand for electricity has doubled in demand due to population growth, GDP growth, and increased electricity supply. 

In developed countries, however, demand growth is expected to be sluggish or even begin to contract, reflecting a combination of improved energy efficiency, moderate economic expansion and the continued exit of energy-intensive industries. 

-- Powering Electric Vehicles

As more electric vehicles are plugged in, utilities and automakers will try to power them. Now, these utilities are not only supplying the vast amounts of electricity consumed by modern car factories, but also fueling a growing number of electric vehicles. 

If this electricity is not generated with the lowest carbon footprint and reasonable cost, the advantages of electric vehicles are diminished. 

-- Digital Network Intelligence 

Adding digital network intelligence to the future power grid will make electricity more like the Internet. To keep a network of thousands (or millions) of small power plants stable, millions of end devices and home management systems will be able to constantly share data or commands. 

The grid itself will also be equipped with advanced information technology (i.e. wireless sensor network technology, artificial intelligence/machine learning, software, computing) capable of measuring demand and production in real time. The deployment of all modern energy technologies will rise and fall based on the construction of communication networks that can process large amounts of real-time data and transmit them using internet protocols. 

The smart grid is the backbone of the new infrastructure. Smart grids can foster energy innovation, just as the Internet has done for computing. The information age is reaching a new level: it is becoming the new electric age. 


12. Cybersecurity for Critical Energy Infrastructure

-- The Cyber Threats That Challenge Global Energy Systems

The reliability of energy infrastructure is critical to modern society. But threats to the global energy system are growing. Digitization increases the vulnerability of hackers. As the National Grid becomes more reliant on computers and data sharing -- with huge benefits for utilities, customers and communities -- it also becomes more vulnerable to physical and cyber threats. 

As distribution grids modernize and distributed energy sources proliferate, so will cybersecurity vulnerabilities. Distribution grids are becoming more digital and dynamic as smart grid devices support two-way communication and customers are increasingly using on-site power generation, software-based energy management tools and a multitude of Internet of Things (IoT) devices. This innovation is positive , but also exposes the grid to more vulnerabilities. 

-- Smart Grids Security Challenges

As power plants and other critical infrastructure increasingly rely on internet-connected technology and wireless communications, hackers appear to be finding new ways to infiltrate their networks. Electric grids are extremely vulnerable to cyber and physical attacks. It is a growing threat to power operators large and small. 

Most grid outages are related to transmission and distribution system problems (not power outages). Depending on the number of events, most outages occurred on the distribution system with limited impact. Transmission-level disruptions occur less frequently and affect more people. However, attacks on electrical distribution systems may increasingly extend beyond local impacts. A simultaneous attack on multiple electrical distribution facilities or a coordinated attack on a single facility in multiple locations could cause widespread disruption. These outages can exacerbate the damage by cutting off power to other critical infrastructure such as water, telecommunications, plumbing, and more. Additionally, cyber intrusions at the distribution level have raised concerns about customer data privacy, potential infiltration of industrial control systems and other negative outcomes. 

-- Protecting The Power Grid from Cyber Attacks

We need to develop methods to help utility companies detect and recover from cyberattacks. If a utility can quickly detect a digital attack, it has a better chance of preventing physical damage from happening. However, attackers continue to improve their tools and techniques to subvert the protective controls in place. The Internet of Things (IoT) across the grid creates new opportunities for hackers. The industry must evolve to address these new threats and defend against them. 

While the global government and utility industry is clearly devoting more resources to the security of critical infrastructure, the industry may need to act faster to defend against cyber threats. The goal is to develop automated defenses that operate independently of utilities to identify attacks, isolate vulnerable devices, and quickly get the system up and running again.


13. Big Data and Analytics, AI and IoT for Energy Management

-- Big Data in Energy Systems and Applications

Energy systems are becoming more complex and advanced as new concepts for energy production and utilization stem from technological developments. Sensors collect vast amounts of data during the generation, transmission, distribution and consumption of energy. The increasing complexity of energy systems requires finding new ways to use engineering experience and data collection to improve decision-making. 

With the expansion and interconnection of energy networks, the energy market is becoming more and more expansive. We are now facing the era of the Internet of Things and the Internet of Energy. Against this backdrop, big data in the energy industry, energy systems and applications is emerging as a crucial new frontier. Operational data on monitoring and data acquisition, energy management, distribution management, distributed energy management, and many more applications are now too complex to be processed with traditional methods and methods. Research efforts and many applications have proven that advancing bid data analysis is critical for improving the design, operation, and maintenance of energy systems, and has led to new advanced energy applications. 

-- From Big Data To Big Insights

Big data is a key element in solving critical business problems for utility companies. It can translate information from smart meters and smart grid projects into meaningful operational insights and understanding of customer behavior. 

As smart grids and smart meters become critical to the industry, they may start generating hundreds of terabytes of data each year -- or unstructured text data compiled from maintenance records and Twitter feeds. The accuracy, breadth and depth of these new data points opens up new opportunities for utilities poised to take advantage of them. 

-- Big Data Analytics is Disrupting the Energy Industry

Digital data and analytics can reduce operational costs by enabling predictive maintenance, thereby lowering electricity prices for end users. Digital data and analytics can help achieve greater efficiency through improved planning, increased power plant combustion efficiency and reduced network loss rates, and better project design across the power system. In the network, efficiency can be improved by reducing the rate of loss in delivering electricity to consumers, for example through remote monitoring, enabling equipment to operate closer to its optimum conditions and grid operators to better manage flow and Bottlenecks. 

Digital data and analytics can also reduce the frequency of unplanned downtime through better monitoring and predictive maintenance, and limit downtime by quickly identifying points of failure. This reduces costs and increases the elasticity and reliability of supply. 

-- How AI and IoT Fit into the Future of Energy

Artificial intelligence (AI) is entering all types of industries, including the energy industry, and the use of AI to harness big data and infer from very large data sets has grown significantly. Artificial intelligence is the application of machine learning to automate and computationally support decision-making in complex systems. AI has great potential for coordinating and optimizing the use of distributed energy, electric vehicles, and the Internet of Things. The use of AI aligns well with the current pace of change expected by utilities, regulators, and customers to improve utility operations, including: reliability (e.g., self-healing grids, operational improvements, and efficient use of renewable resources and energy storage) utilization); security (eg, outage prediction and outage response); cybersecurity of the system (eg, threat detection and response); optimization (eg, asset, maintenance, workflow, and portfolio management); and enhanced customer experience (eg, faster, more intuitive interactive voice responses, personalization, product and service matching); etc.. 

The use of energy storage and the Internet of Things is expected to increase significantly in the coming years, with the development of distributed energy sources for bidirectional power flow in the distribution grid and the new roles of energy service providers, utilities and consumers to produce energy or prosumers. This evolution of the power grid is known as the "energy cloud", given the increase in the number of control points in the power grid from tens of thousands to hundreds of millions, or even billions. In the future, it will be a requirement for effective grid engagement, compared to now that AI is a tool that is exploring optimization opportunities. 


(Smart Grid Communications, NIST)

14. Interoperable and Smart Homes, Buildings, and Grids

-- To Meet Skyrocketing Energy Demand Worldwide

Modern society depends on a reliable and adequate supply of energy. This need will only grow as our populations and cities get bigger. Ultimately, we need smart grid technology because as the population grows, the demand for electricity will only increase, but we need to reduce electricity usage to fight global warming. Currently, the world consumes about 15 terawatts (15 terawatts) of energy. 1 terawatt is 1,000 gigawatts, and 1 gigawatt is the capacity of the largest coal-fired power station. 

In another 50 years, we will need about 30 terawatts. Where can we find another 15? We have to start a new 1,000 megawatt power plant tomorrow, another the next day, and on, one a day for the next 40 years, to get another 15 terawatts. There is no doubt that new sources of power generation will be needed to meet the skyrocketing world energy demand. 

We will need a scalable, innovative and clean energy mix to meet the world's need for reliable energy, taking into account the economic, environmental, health and climate impacts of energy production. At the same time, smart grids will be implemented gradually over the next two decades as technology, pricing, policies and regulations change. 

-- The Integration of Renewable Energy Sources  and Energy Efficiency Promotion 

As energy production becomes decentralized and ICTs are increasingly present in the home, the integration of renewable energy sources (RES) and improvements in energy efficiency should benefit from smarter homes, buildings and appliances, as well as (battery) electric vehicles. Digital tools for building management -- part of so-called "smart infrastructure" -- use an array of sensors, controls and software to operate buildings in the most efficient way. This allows for better management of heating, cooling, water, lighting and ventilation to reduce energy consumption and improve comfort. 

-- Interoperable Smart Technologies

Smart homes and buildings are one of the key elements, as system integration and optimization of distributed generation, storage and flexible consumption will require the installation of interoperable smart technologies at the building level. 

The Internet of Things (IoT) seamlessly integrates home appliances with relevant home comfort and building automation services, matching user demand with distributed energy management across the grid and benefiting from demand response. 

The new services should bring consumers a more comfortable, convenient and healthier living environment at lower energy costs, while enabling consumers to actively participate in energy systems and energy markets.


15. The Future of Hydrogen Energy

-- The Hydrogen Economy

The hydrogen economy is a collection of markets and technologies surrounding the rapidly growing hydrogen market. Between liquid hydrogen and hydrogen fuel cell aircraft and cars, hydrogen is fast becoming the hottest source of clean energy investment. While lithium-ion batteries have been leading the way in clean energy technology advancements, hydrogen is about to come into the spotlight. 

The hydrogen economy is a foreseeable future in which hydrogen is used as a fuel for thermal and hydrogen vehicles, for energy storage and for the long-distance transport of energy. To phase out fossil fuels and limit global warming, hydrogen can be produced from water using intermittent renewable resources such as wind and solar energy, the combustion of which releases only water vapor into the atmosphere. 

Hydrogen is a powerful fuel and a common ingredient in rocket fuels, but many technical challenges have prevented the establishment of a large-scale hydrogen economy. These include difficulties in developing long-term storage, piping, and engine equipment; the relative lack of off-the-shelf engine technology that can currently operate safely on hydrogen; safety concerns due to the high reactivity of hydrogen fuel with ambient oxygen in the air; Cost; lack of efficient photochemical water splitting technology. Nonetheless, the hydrogen economy is slowly developing as a small part of the low-carbon economy. 

-- Hydrogen 2.0

Hydrogen 2.0 is a smart way to produce sustainable energy on demand when and where it is needed. Although hydrogen is abundant on Earth as an element, it is almost always found as part of another compound, such as water (H2O) or methane (CH4), and must be separated into pure hydrogen (H2) before it can be used. for fuel cell electric vehicles. Hydrogen fuel is combined with oxygen in the air through a fuel cell to generate electricity and water through an electrochemical process. 

Hydrogen (H2) is a gas and the first element on the periodic table. It has no color, taste or smell and is highly flammable. Its molecular formula is H2. Hydrogen is the simplest element on Earth -- it's made up of just one proton and one electron -- and it's an energy carrier, not a source of energy. Hydrogen can store and provide usable energy, but it usually does not exist alone in nature and must be produced from compounds that contain it. 

Hydrogen is the smallest and most fundamental element in the periodic table. This element is one of the key components of water, a substance essential to life and used for a variety of purposes. In addition, hydrogen is used for a variety of purposes and is used in a variety of products, from fuel to disinfection to finding a variety of useful products in the home. 

Hydrogen is already widely used in some industries but has not yet realized its potential to support the clean energy transition. Ambitious and targeted near-term action is needed to further overcome obstacles and reduce costs.


16. Conclusions

In this workshop, we will focus on understanding the control, production, transmission and consumption of electrical energy by developing models, devices and software for faster and more accurate analysis, as well as the main communications currently used in smart grids protocol. The workshop will also discuss the Energy Internet, Smart Grids and Smart Grid Security, CCUS (Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage), thermal energy harvesting technologies, and energy systems utilizing clean energy that is inexhaustible, inexhaustible, and ubiquitous , such as solar energy, wind energy (note: wind and solar forecast errors can significantly affect the power system generation scheduling process), hydrogen, biomass (i.e. plant matter such as trees, grass, agricultural residues, algae and other biological materials), Ocean (i.e. wave energy, tidal energy, ocean thermal energy conversion) and geothermal, but also unconventional pathways such as methane clathrates, radiant energy, cold fusion, magneto, etc., and their integration and community in modern grids -- From ultra-high voltage transmission systems to medium and low voltage distribution networks.



(last updated by hhw: 3/12/22)


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