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Internet, Networks and TCP/IP

(The Internet Network Diagram - Internet, Extranet, and Intranet)


The Internet Revolution is the New Industrial Revolution




The Internet (Past, Present and Future)

- The Growth of the Internet

Since the early 1980’s when the U.S. government began to share their network technology with the world, there has been growth on a scale that is hard to imagine and in the early 1980’s there were only 213 registered hosts on the Internet. In 1986, this number had risen to 2,308 hosts. 

According to the Internet society, a non-profit society that studies and promotes the use of Internet there were approximately 500,000 computers or hosts, connected to the Internet in 1990. At the mid of 1995, this number grew to estimated 53.85 million. More astounding is the number of people using the Internet. 134 countries had full Internet connection and an additional 52 countries had limited access (for example, e-mail only) in 1996. Surveys performed by International Data Corporation and Matrix information and Directory Services found that as of September 1997 there were between 53 and 57 million users of the Internet world wide. By January 1999 there were about 50 million Internet connections worldwide and which were estimated to grow to 200 million by the year 2000. 

Today, the Internet is a public, cooperative, and self-sustaining facility accessible to hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Physically, the Internet uses a portion of total resources of the currently existing public telecommunication networks. Technically, what distinguishes the Internet is its use of a set of protocols called TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol). 


- The Internet:  The Largest Network of All

The Internet comprises the network edge and the network core. The network core is the set of interconnected networks that provide wide area connectivity to the customers of the network. The network edge is the set of devices and local networks that connect to the core network. Your computers, TV sets, thermostats, and local network constitute a network edge. Your Internet service provider and its Internet service provider are components of the network core.

Today, The Internet is the largest computer network. It is composed of thousands of smaller networks and connects billions of devices worldwide, handling the majority of data communication that occurs on a daily basis. The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide. TCP/IP, or the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, is a suite of communication protocols used to interconnect network devices on the Internet. TCP/IP can also be used as a communications protocol in a private computer network (an Intranet or an Extranet).

The Internet is a network of networks that consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. The mobile Internet, automation and AI will have profound implications - for jobs, infrastructure, investment, global competition and more.


- The Internet and Beyond

Initially restricted to military and academic institutions, the Internet now operates on a three-level hierarchy composed of backbone networks, mid-level networks and stub networks. It is a full-fledged conduit for any and all forms of information and commerce. Internet websites now provide personal, educational, political and economic resources to virtually any point on the planet.

The Industrial Internet is the next frontier. It merges the physical with the digital to predict, control and create systems that produce better outcomes. Through the Industrial Internet, companies will shift from responding to events and will instead use connected machines, big data and analytics to predict and plan, resulting in large gains in industrial productivity, bottom line results and societal outcomes.

The Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0) refers to the marriage of physical assets and advanced digital technologies, the Internet of Things (IoT), artificial intelligence (AI),  robots, drones, autonomous vehicles, 3D printing, cloud computing, nanotechnology, and more - that communicate, analyze, and act upon information, enabling organizations, consumers, and society to be more flexible and responsive and make more intelligent, data-driven decisions.

People around the world are accessing the Internet with mobile devices. The number of connected devices is soaring. Soon machines will be communicating with each other in the Internet of Things. To progress the development of the digital society and make the Internet of Things working, we need a powerful wireless network that can transfer large volumes of data fast. Wireless 5G will substantially improve the mobile Internet. LTE is currently the fastest mobile technology available, supporting peak data rates of up to 300 megabits per second (Mbs). 


Intranet and Extranet


(The Relation Between Internet, Extranet, and Intranet)

Although Intranet and Extranet software are relatively new, they have advanced rapidly within the last 20 years. Intranets and Extranets of Today look and function differently than what existed years ago. Today's platforms are far more versatile and flexible. In many ways, they're becoming a B2B necessity that simply can't be overlooked any longer. 

Sharing large files is easier than ever, real-time conversations are possible, and sharable calendars keep everyone on the same page. Intranet and Extranet software are full-fledged digital, interactive, collaborative communities for you and your customers. Every action is intuitive.


- Intranet:  A Secure Internet-like Network for Organizations

The prefix "Intra" means within or inside. Therefore, an Intranet is the company's digital workspace that centralizes and streamlines every person, document, tool, conversation, and project within your company. An Intranet is a platform that can be bought and sold (or built, in some cases), while the Internet is the underlying technology that enables its connectivity. Internet contains a large number of Intranets.

With advancements in browser-based software for the Internet, many private organizations have implemented Intranets. An Intranet is a private network utilizing Internet-type tools, but available only within that organization. For large organizations, an Intranet provides easy access to corporate information for designated employees. The Internet is a wide network of computers and is available to all. Anyone can access the Internet. It is a public network. It is not as safe as compared to Intranet. Intranet can be accessed from the Internet with specific restrictions. 

Here, are important applications of Intranet: Sharing the detail of company rules/policies & regulations; Access employee database; Access product & customer data; Sharing some common information; Intranet also use for launching personal or department-specific home pages; Submission of reports; and Corporate telephone directories.

Here, are drawbacks/cons of Intranet: Threat of sharing information and the loss of control; Unauthorized access; Limited bandwidth for the business; Information overload lowers productivity; and 
Hidden or unknown complexity and costs.


- Extranet:  A Secure Means for Sharing Information with Partners

The prefix "Extra" means within or outside. An Extranet connects external parties to employees, information, and knowledge. The instance might look similar to Intranet but it is quite unique.

Extranet is a highly secured private network specifically designed to allow individuals in your organization’s communication virtual space. It is often defined as a private network that leverages Internet technology and public telecommunication system to share part of a business’s information or operations over a secure system with suppliers, vendors, partners, customers, or other businesses. An Extranet is often considered part of a company’s Intranet that is extended to authorized users outside of the organization. 

Modern businesses have a network of partners and stakeholders that they need to connect and collaborate with in order to drive productive networks and relationships. An Extranet can be the core from which these essential stakeholder relations are managed, delivering on-demand access to the latest information and resources, supporting self-service and opening lines of communication to your talent that better supports seamless collaborative experiences. With an Extranet built on employee experience platform you foster even more effective partner relationships through exceptional experiences tailored to every business stakeholder.

While an Intranet is used to disseminate confidential information within a corporation, an Extranet is commonly used by companies to share data in a secure fashion with their business partners. Internet-type tools are used by content providers to update the Extranet. Encryption and user authentication means are provided to protect the information, and to ensure that designated people with the proper access privileges are allowed to view it.

With an Extranet, the host organization manages the site administration and content, and provides controlled access to internal and external members. Some example use cases for an Extranet include a partner or vendor portal, a customer community, or a franchise network.



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