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Python Programming Language

(Duke University - Cheng-Yu Chen)


- Overview

Python is an interpreted high-level general-purpose programming language. Its design philosophy emphasizes code readability with its use of significant indentation. Its language constructs as well as its object-oriented approach aim to help programmers write clear, logical code for small and large-scale projects.  

Open-source: Python is developed under an OSI-approved open source license, making it freely usable and distributable, even for commercial use. Python's license is administered by the Python Software Foundation.  

The following is a useful first step to get on your way writing programs with Python!:


- Advantages of Python

  • General-purpose language: Python is regarded as a better choice if your project demands more than just statistics. For instance — designing a functional website. Smooth Learning Curve — Python is easy to learn and easily accessible which enables you to find the skilled developers on a faster basis.
  • The bulk of Important libraries: Python basts countless libraries for munging, gathering, and controlling the information. Take an occasion of Scikit-realize which comprises tools for information mining and investigation to support the incredible AI convenience utilizing Python. Another bundle called Pandas gives engineers superior structures and data examination devices that help to diminish the improvement time. If your development team demands one of the major functionalities of R then RPy2 is the one to go for. 
  • Better Integration: Generally, in any engineering environment, the Python integrates better than R. Thus, regardless of whether the designers attempt to exploit a lower-level language like C, C++ or Java, it generally gives better joining different components with Python wrapper. Additionally, a python-based stack is anything but difficult to incorporate the remaining task at hand of data researchers by bringing it easily into creation. 
  • Boosts Productivity: The syntax of Python is exceptionally decipherable and like other programming languages, however unique in relation to R. In this way, it guarantees high profitability of the development groups.  


- Disadvantages of Python

  • Includes a very few statistical model packages.
  • Due to the presence of the Global Interpreter Lock (GIL), threading in Python becomes tricky and quite problematic. Subsequently, multi-threaded CPU-bound applications act slower than single-thread ones. An AI undertaking is more valuable for executing multiprocessing instead of utilizing multithreaded programming.


- Independence across Platforms

Due to its ability to run on multiple platforms without the need to change, developers prefer Python, unlike in other programming languages. Python runs across different platforms, such as Windows, Linux, and macOS, thus requiring little or no changes. 

The platforms are fully compatible with the Python programming language, which means that there is little to no need for a Python expert to explain the program’s code. The ease of executability makes it easy to distribute software, allowing standalone software to be built and run using Python. 

he software can be programmed from start to finish using Python as the only language. It is a plus for developers since other programming languages require complementation by other languages before the project is fully completed. 

Python’s independence across platforms saves time and resources for developers, who would otherwise incur a lot of resources to complete a single project.


- Consistency and Simplicity

The Python programming language is a haven for most software developers looking for simplicity and consistency in their work. The Python code is concise and readable, which simplifies the presentation process. 

A developer can write code easily and concisely compare it to other programming languages. It allows developers to receive input from other developers in the community to help enhance the software or application. 

The simplicity of the Python language makes it easy for beginners to master it quickly and with less effort as compared to other programming languages. Also, experienced developers find it easy to create stable and reliable systems, and they can focus their efforts on enhancing their creativity and solving real-world problems using machine learning.


- Frameworks and Libraries Variety

Libraries and frameworks are vital in the preparation of a suitable programming environment. Python frameworks and libraries offer a reliable environment that reduces software development time significantly. 

A library basically includes a prewritten code that developers can use to speed up coding when working on complex projects. Python includes a modular machine learning library known as PyBrain, which provides easy-to-use algorithms for use in machine learning tasks. 

The best and most reliable coding solutions require a proper structure and tested environment, which is available in the Python frameworks and libraries.


- The Python Package Index (PyPI) 

The Python Package Index (PyPI) is a repository for software for the Python programming language. It is a public repository where users can upload and download open source and other publicly available artifacts. 

PyPI is run by the Python Software Foundation, a charity. It is similar to the CPAN repository for Perl and the CRAN repository for R. 

PyPI stores metadata describing distributions packaged with distutils, as well as package data like distribution files. Package authors use PyPI to distribute their software. 

PyPI hosts thousands of third-party modules for Python. Both Python's standard library and the community-contributed modules allow for endless possibilities. 

For example, Web and Internet Development, Database Access, Desktop GUIs, Scientific & Numeric, Education, Network Programming, Software & Game Development.

Please refer to the following for more information:


- Python Software Installation

Many PCs and Macs will have python already installed. To check if you have python installed on a Windows PC, search in the start bar for Python or run the following on the Command Line (cmd.exe): python

If you find that you do not have python installed on your computer, then you can download it for free from the following website:


- Python Syntax

Python is dynamically-typed and garbage-collected. It supports multiple programming paradigms, including structured (particularly, procedural), object-oriented and functional programming. It is often described as a "batteries included" language due to its comprehensive standard library.

Python was designed for readability, and has some similarities to the English language with influence from mathematics. It uses new lines to complete a command, as opposed to other programming languages which often use semicolons or parentheses. 

Python relies on indentation, using whitespace, to define scope; such as the scope of loops, functions and classes. Other programming languages often use curly-brackets for this purpose.  

Python is an interpreted programming language, this means that as a developer you write Python (.py) files in a text editor and then put those files into the python interpreter to be executed.  

The way to run a python file is like this on the command line:  


[More to come ...]


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