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The Internet of Things (IoT) Technology and Applications

The Future of IoT_071620A
[The Future of IoT -Datafloq]


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- Overview

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a network of physical objects that can connect to the internet (or other networks) and exchange data with other devices and systems. These objects, or "things" (IoT devices), are embedded with sensors, actuators, software, and other technologies that allow them to communicate with each other and the cloud. IoT devices can range from household items to industrial tools. 

IoT covers electronics, communications and computer science engineering. The "Internet of Things" is considered a misnomer because devices do not need to be connected to the public internet; they just need to be connected to the network and individually addressable.

This network consists of smart sensors, actuators and other connected elements that enable data flow from physical sources through networks into storage in the cloud.

IoT has become an important technology in the 21st century, allowing for seamless communication between people, processes, and things. It can improve how people work and live in many ways, such as:

  • Smart homes: Automatically adjust heating and lighting
  • Smart factories: Monitor industrial machines for problems and automatically adjust to avoid failures
  • Wearable devices: Monitor or maintain health and wellness, assist in managing diseases, and more
  • Shoes: Collect data like how many steps you take, which can be analyzed to provide personalized fitness advice
  • City trash cans: Send alerts when they need to be emptied
  • Bridge sensors: Check for stress or damage to the structure

Please refer to the following for more information:


- The Economic Potential of IoT

The Internet of Things (IoT) simplifies health management for people and healthcare providers; simplifies the way we do business; and improves how we grow food, deliver goods, and manage services. It increases productivity, enhances communication, and increases efficiency. It makes it easier for businesses to scale.

The field continues to evolve due to the convergence of multiple technologies, including ubiquitous computing, commodity sensors, increasingly powerful embedded systems, and machine learning. 

Older domains such as embedded systems, wireless sensor networks, control systems, and automation (including home and building automation) independently or together enable the Internet of Things. 

In the consumer market, IoT technology is synonymous with "smart home" products, including devices that support one or more common ecosystems and can be accessed through devices related to that ecosystem, such as smartphones and smart speakers. IoT is also used in healthcare systems.

There are many concerns about the risks of the growth of IoT technologies and products, particularly in the areas of privacy and security, so industry and government have taken steps to address these concerns, including the development of international and local standards, guidelines, and regulatory frameworks. 

Due to the interconnected nature of IoT devices, they are vulnerable to security breaches and privacy issues. At the same time, the way these devices communicate wirelessly creates regulatory ambiguity and complicates jurisdiction over data transfers.

By 2030, the Internet of Things (IoT) will add $5.5 trillion to $12.6 trillion in value to the global economy. This number is not surprising given that IoT devices include everything from smart light bulbs in homes to critical sensors in power stations. 


- IoT Architecture and Ecosystem

Internet of Things (IoT) technology has a wide range of applications, and the use of IoT is growing at such a rapid rate. IoT architecture is the structure that allows for interconnected devices, cloud services and protocols to create an IoT ecosystem. 

An IoT ecosystem is a network of interconnected devices, objects, people, and processes that communicate with each other to collect and exchange data. This ecosystem is made up of various components, including IoT devices, sensors, networks, cloud platforms, and applications.

Depending on the different application areas of IoT, it works accordingly in the way it was designed/developed. But IoT does not have a working structure defined by universally strictly followed standards. The architecture of IoT depends on its functionality and implementation in different domains. Despite this, there is a basic process flow based on which IoT is built. 

A lot of work needs to be done to make IoT devices function as they should. All hardware, software, services, and applications need to work together seamlessly for an IoT system to function, and this requires a solid IoT architecture.

The challenge, however, is ensuring that such a wide range of devices work harmoniously together. This is where the Internet of Things (IoT) architecture comes in—including its layers, systems, and devices.

IoT architecture is the structure that enables Internet-connected devices to communicate with other devices. Most IoT architectural models include 3 to 7 groups of functional elements or “layers,” such as perception layer (e.g., sensors), transport layer (e.g., Wi-Fi), and application layer (e.g., software).


- The Internet of Things (IoT): A Key Enabler of Big Data

The Internet of Things (IoT) is an advanced technology that takes modern manufacturing units and industries to another level. It consists of sensors, automatic gateway connections, smart device accessibility, a one-stop dashboard and state-of-the-art services. Furthermore, when implemented within the industry, the technology even provides shareable reports with accurate details of industrial processes, helping to make correct and informed decisions. 

IoT is significantly helping to capture vast amounts of data from different kinds of assets and multiple sources. However, the vast amount of data from numerous IoT devices seems difficult to collect, process and analyze. But with the help of automated sensors and efficient processing, managers can make the data useful and convert it into a simplified format for further use. Therefore, we can say that IoT is redefining the way industries and businesses operate, adding momentum to the economy.

IoT is a key enabler of big data, which collects and optimizes various business and productivity related processes from IoT devices. This trend presents an opportunity to use big data for integrated marketing and quality control industry applications. In addition, it has spawned interdisciplinary research streams, such as cloud/fog/edge computing-assisted computing models for big data analytics. 


- The Internet of Things (IoT): the Next Big Thing in Technology

The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of physical “things”, devices, that contain embedded technology to communicate sensory data with the Internet. IoT devices interact with others over the Internet, all collecting and sharing data, and can be remotely monitored and controlled. By 2025, it is estimated that there will be more than to 21 billion IoT devices worldwide. 

Thanks to the arrival of super-cheap computer chips and the ubiquity of wireless networks, it's possible to turn anything, from something as small as a pill to something as big as an aeroplane, into a part of the IoT. Connecting up all these different objects and adding sensors to them adds a level of digital intelligence to devices that would be otherwise dumb, enabling them to communicate real-time data without involving a human being. The IoT is making the fabric of the world around us more smarter and more responsive, merging the digital and physical universes. 

The future of IoT has the potential to be limitless. Advances to the industrial Internet will be accelerated through increased network agility, integrated artificial intelligence (AI) and the capacity to deploy, automate, orchestrate and secure diverse use cases at hyperscale. The potential is not just in enabling billions of devices simultaneously but leveraging the huge volumes of actionable data which can automate diverse business processes. As networks and IoT platforms evolve to overcome these challenges, through increased capacity and AI, service providers will edge furthermore into IT and web scale markets –- opening entire new streams of revenue.


- Unraveling The Web of IoT

The IoT integrates the interconnectedness of human culture - our 'things' -- with the interconnectedness of our digital information system -- 'the Internet.' That's the IoT,"  

Cellular networks connect your iPhone to Google Maps, Instagram, and Email; they carry your voice through the air. Now, we’re also seeing the value of connecting with the physical objects around us: the streetlights, parking meters, and hospitals that occupy our everyday urban lives, or the myriad industrial applications like manufacturing and agriculture that connectivity can enhance. It seems that the future has finally arrived - and What you may not know is how that same cellular technology behind your smartphone is empowering the next wave of innovation in the dawning “Internet of Things” (IoT). 

The flood of new IoT devices and applications coming onto the market are made possible by the latest advances in connectivity. Unlicensed short-range technologies like ZigBee and long-range technologies like LoRa have allowed anyone with an idea to create IoT apps for mass market deployments. But licensed technologies like narrowband IoT (NB-IoT), LTE for Machine Type Communications (LTE-M) and Enhanced Coverage GSM (EC-GSM) are also gaining traction with operators offering IoT services through their existing cellular networks. 

The Internet of Things (IoT) - the vast electronic web of connected devices which rapidly collects, aggregates and processes information across superfast networks. The transformative potential of IoT technology is no secret. It represents a fundamental shift in the very nature of the smart “things” we depend on for many aspects in our lives. 

These tens of billions of “smart” collection devices range from light bulbs, to door locks, to power meters and beyond. Future Internet is expected to be driven by the prevalence of IoT where it is envisioned that anything can be connected. 


Big Data IoT Architecture_111023A
[Big Data IoT Architecture - ResearchGate]

- 5G is the Foundation for Realizing the Full Potential of IoT

In a world of uncertainties, technology is the one constant that continues to move us forward. Nowhere is this more evident than with the emergence of the Internet of Things (IoT), the system of uniquely identified interconnected devices that are enabled to transmit and share data over wireless networks. 

Bridging the gap between the physical and virtual worlds, the IoT is helping to create smart environments by linking these devices to everyday settings and tasks that help individuals, businesses and potentially whole societies, live in a smarter and more comfortable way - and it’s growing fast.

5G is important to IoT because of the need for a faster network with higher capacity that can serve connectivity needs. The 5G spectrum expands the frequencies on which digital cellular technologies will transfer data. This wider spectrum available for use increases the overall bandwidth of cellular networks, allowing for additional devices to connect. 

5G-enabled IoT is expected not only to enable technological growth; it is also projected to help support 22 million jobs around the world. This job growth is expected to come from the digitization of transportation, agriculture, manufacturing and other physical industries. Consider also construction sites, mines, oil derricks and freighter fleets: these industries would benefit greatly from ultra-fast data transmission to the time-sensitive nature of their output.

For example, 5G's unique combination of high-speed connectivity, very low latency, and ubiquitous coverage will support smart vehicles and transport infrastructure such as connected cars, trucks, and buses, where a split second delay could mean the difference between a smooth flow of traffic and a 4-way crash at an intersection. 

5G will enable us to control more devices remotely in applications where real-time network performance is critical, such as remote control of heavy machinery in hazardous environments, thereby improving worker safety, and even remote surgery.

5G has the potential to drive advancements in smart machinery as well as smart manufacturing. Thinking even bigger, 5G could enable IoT to run virtually instantaneous traffic analyses, improve security and public safety and possibly enable remote surgery.


- Driving Global Adoption and Deployment of IPv6

The future of the Internet depends on the continued growth of a solid, healthy, and secured underlying global network infrastructure supporting the demand for the next generation of the Internet using IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) as its communication protocol. The future of the Internet is depending on the global successful adoption of IPv6. 

In the era of Internet of Things (IoT) and blockchain, it has become increasingly obvious that without the extensive global adoption and successful deployment of IPv6 as the primary version of the Internet Protocol (IP), if not the only version of IP completely replacing IPv4, not only the future deployment and growth of IoT and other technological innovations relying on the support of the Internet are impossible, but the future of the Internet itself is at stake. 

In order to support the rapid new development and the worldwide adoption of IoT as well as the continued growth of M2M technology and its large scale applications in the future, a global adoption and deployment of the Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) are required because all of the sensors and machine-readable identifiers needed to make the Internet of Things a reality will need an extremely large address space. 

Consequently, the future success of M2M, as an integral part of the IoT, will largely be determined by the successful global adoption of IPv6.


- Artificial Intelligence of Things (AIoT)

IoT is creating massive amounts of data. From health information to environmental conditions to warehouse and logistics data, IoT devices regularly generate far more data than anyone can process or utilize in a productive manner. Fortunately, there is a solution: AI in the form of big data. IoT requires AI. Over time, AI systems can learn the most important patterns and trends. It can identify when a specific event occurs that requires human intervention. It can sense security breaches and stop them before they become a crisis. In short, for IoT to reach its full potential, it needs artificial intelligence.

IoT allows devices to communicate with each other and act on those insights. These devices are only as good as the data they provide. To be useful for decision-making, data needs to be collected, stored, processed, and analyzed. This creates challenges for organizations. As IoT applications increase, businesses are struggling to efficiently process data and use it for real-world decision making and insights. 

This is due to two issues: cloud and data transfer. The cloud cannot scale to handle all the data from IoT devices, and transferring data from IoT devices to the cloud is limited by bandwidth. Regardless of the size and complexity of the communication network, the sheer volume of data collected by IoT devices can cause delays and congestion. 

Some IoT applications rely on fast, real-time decision-making, such as self-driving cars. To be effective and safe, self-driving cars need to process data and make instant decisions (just like humans do). They are not limited by latency, unreliable connections, and low bandwidth. 

Self-driving cars are far from the only IoT applications that rely on such quick decisions. Manufacturing already contains IoT devices, and delays or delays can affect processes or limit capacity in an emergency.

The convergence of AI and IoT can redefine how industries, commerce and economies work. AI-enabled IoT creates intelligent machines that can simulate intelligent behavior and support decision-making with little or no human intervention.



[More to come ...]







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